Original Link :

https://sustainableunh.unh.edu/blog/2016/06/climate-change-mitigate-or-adapt

http://files.cityofportsmouth.com/press/PressRelease_SustainabilityFellowship.pdf

Can you tell us about yourself?

“The city that I lived in, Bangalore, used to have a lot of water shortages. It used to have power cuts — we used to go as long as three days without water, as long as three days without electricity. That made me acutely aware of resource shortages and how unequally they are distributed,” Vidya says.

The water tank near her childhood home often leaked, and, despite repeated calls, it was rarely fixed. Seeing the incredible waste of a valuable resource made becoming a plumber the perfect solution. As Vidya grew older she realized that her impact might be greater if she traded in plumbing for science – a decision that is proving to serve her well.

Through her studies of the human dimension of natural resources, specifically in climate change, Vidya’s journey has taken her from India to the University of Missouri’s School of Natural Resources (SNR) and now to the New Hampshire Coastal Program as a National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) coastal management fellow.

Following her bachelor’s degree (B.Sc.) in environmental science, Chemistry, Botany from St. Joseph’s College in India in 2015, Vidya says there were a few factors that led her to the University of Missouri.

“People say it’s in the middle of nowhere, but I don’t agree. I think it’s a great location,” Vidya says.

In addition to location and affordability, SNR’s human dimensions emphasis area provided a unique and vital specialization.

Discussing the emphasis and its relation to climate change, Vidaya says, “When it comes to environmental problems, we already have the science, but what we don’t have is people’s buy in… The purpose of this program is to help students learn how to engage people in environmental issues and to study their attitudes and motivations.”

Please tell us about your work

Vidya Balasubramanyam is pursuing an M.S. in Human Dimensions of Natural Resources at the University of Missouri. She is researching perceptions of climate change in Missouri State Parks in an effort to improve climate-sensitive interpretive programming for visitors. Broadly, she is interested in the intersection of the social sciences and the natural sciences, and how that nexus can be leveraged to solve problems posed by climate change. She is also passionate about using science communication and Geographic Information Systems as tools for interdisciplinary research and collaboration.  Originally from India, Vidya  worked for non-profit organizations focusing on sustainability, environmental education,and social impact. She also has a Graduate Certificate (Geographic Information Science) from University of Missouri.

Since arriving at MU in 2015, Vidya has had many opportunities to study these attitudes and motivations.

While interning at the city of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, during the summer of 2016, Vidya helped determine the community’s recycling rate and landfill diversion rate.

“I literally collected people’s trash for one week, sorted through the trash and figured out how efficient their recycling actually was,” Vidya says. “Did they put all their materials in the recycling bin? Were there any contaminants?”

For the spring semester of 2017, Vidya worked as a greenhouse gas intern for the city of Columbia. Following the Paris climate agreement, the city of Columbia, along with many others, committed to follow the terms of the agreement. As part of this initiative, Vidya worked to determine the current emissions profile of the city – a step necessary for further improvement.

Vidya also assisted on a colleague’s thesis researching recycling at MU football games. Here, she sorted through trash to help determine the current state of recycling at games.

“I know it seems like a pattern – sorting through trash, but I guess it’s an important thing to look at,” Vidya says.

This includes working with the Department of Public Works to conduct a recovery rate analysis of waste to determine what percentage of recyclables are going into trash and what percent of trash ends up in recycling bins. This will help identify which specific waste items are causing the most contamination, and lead to a compiled report and a presentation made to City staff and the City’s Sustainability Committee. Additionally, Vidya is assisting City staff with its efforts to prepare for anticipated sea level rise impacts in the Historic District and will work with City staff to implement and gain a better understanding of what goes into climate adaptation planning.

This August, Vidya defended her thesis to end her time at MU. Her project was part of a National Science Foundation (NSF) $20 million grant awarded to universities across Missouri. The piece given to the School of Natural Resources helped to study climate change in regards to state parks. Vidya worked with park naturalists and interpreters to discover their views and attitudes on the subject.

“They are the ones educating visitors about what’s going on in the park so we thought that their perspectives about climate change are important,” Vida says.

How did you end up in such an offbeat, unconventional and interesting career?

Just yesterday, I read that the South Pole, the last station on Earth that did not have CO2 concentrations at the 400 ppm level, unfortunately ended up reaching it. This is not an isolated incident; it seems that the planet as a whole has transcended the 400 ppm threshold permanently. However, the fact that a location as remote as the South Pole has crossed this milestone is worrying.

This makes me wonder: Is it too late to mitigate? Is adaptation the only way? If so, does this mean that we’ve given up? Should we give up?

These are some questions with which I approach my fellowship for the summer. My placement is at the City of Portsmouth in the beautiful New Hampshire seacoast. My work is split between two projects, and as you’ll see, I’m wading my way through them by asking (and sometimes answering) questions.

Side note: I’m a huge fan of the Socratic method of learning. This method is designed to stimulate critical thinking by asking open ended questions. I use it as a way to unlearn. It’s so easy to be a saturated know-it-all based off of textbooks and the umpteen sources of information out there. But sometimes, it’s good to pause, stow it all away in a corner of your head, and re-start your learning process with an open mind.

How does your work help the community?

One of my tasks at the City of Portsmouth is to assist with the launch of a climate change vulnerability assessment of the city’s historic districts. Portsmouth is already at the forefront of adaptation planning with its previous city-wide vulnerability assessment of the impacts of sea level rise and storm surge.

Zooming into the historic district vulnerability assessment, the obvious question to ask is, “How vulnerable are Portsmouth’s historic districts to sea level rise”?

But the deeper questions I hope to find answers to are, “Which historic structures should we prioritize? Which ones are most important to the public? How are they impacted by different scenarios of climate change impacts: from coastal flooding to salt water intrusion to weathering and erosion of architectural materials?”

My work begins, as all management plans should, with the inventory. Inventorying is the first step in any planning process, and it’s always useful to look at existing documentation and seeking some answers from it. The question I’m asking from the inventory is, “Which structures are the most important in terms of their contribution to the landscape?” ArcGIS has been my best friend this past week in helping me answer this question.

While Portsmouth is certainly gearing up to adapt, it hasn’t quite given up on mitigation. This is my second task: identifying ways to help Portsmouth’s residents recycle better. The more we recycle, the less waste goes to the landfill, and consequently, the lower are greenhouse gases emissions from landfills. Currently, 42 % of the US’s greenhouse gas emissions are from the energy used to take a product through its entire life cycle. Reducing emissions at the grave can mitigate anywhere between 1 to 5%  of the US’s total greenhouse gas emissions.

So, again, I come to this project with a question: “What is the rate of contamination in Portsmouth’s recycling stream?”, also rephrased as “How efficient are Portsmouth’s residents at recycling?”

Answering this question requires a study design, collection of representative samples of trash and recycling, sorting of samples, characterizing the waste, identifying sources of contamination in the recycling stream, and researching strategies to reach out to the public to help them recycle better.

Now for some tips…

From my experience in study design so far, here are some best practices that you might already know about, but are still helpful refreshers:

1. Try to use similar methods that previous studies in your area of inquiry have used. Researchers underestimate the importance of replicability– often trying to find brand new methods of inquiry. However, replicability is important because data cannot be compared if they are obtained in different contexts. It’s useful to improve previously establish procedures, and seal up the loopholes; but always make sure you have a basis for comparing your findings to those from other communities.
2. Figure out how you’re going to analyze your data before you collect your data. It’s tempting to put this off, but there’s no point collecting data you’re not going to use. While you design your study, also create your data sheet and start filling it in hypothetically. This will tell you whether you need more variables or fewer variables, how sensitive your study is going to be, and where the lines can get blurred.
3. Keep zooming out. When designing studies, it’s easy to get caught up with small specificities. When you’re in a conundrum, zoom back out and ask yourself, “what is my research question? What answers am I seeking from this study?”
4. Build in room for flexibility and improvisation. Often, findings emerge from data by themselves. If your framework is too rigorous, those findings will be blotted out by pre-established assumptions. It’s good to have some breathing space for your data.

Zooming back out (remember tip #3!)

Back to my earlier mitigation versus adaptation rumination: perhaps there should be no “versus”, and both should go on simultaneously—contributing to and feeding off of each other. And perhaps by the end of this fellowship, I can make a strong argument to support this systems thinking approach.

The “best practice” in climate change communication says that articles like these should end with a note of positivity, but I think the exciting projects and challenges that each fellow is tackling at their placement is in itself a beacon of hope for all our respective communities!

Whats next?

This month Vidya returns to New Hampshire for a two-year NOAA-funded coastal management fellowship. She was one of five students selected from a field of more than 100 applicants.

The New Hampshire region, which has many historical coastal properties, is now in danger of extreme damage, Vidya says. Because of this fellowship, Vidya is funded full-time to study and implement “living shorelines” – a practice of protecting shorelines using nature-based strategies like native vegetation. This method protects shores without destroying animal habitat.

Looking forward, Vidya hopes to one day work as a climate change resilience specialist, helping communities play a larger part in climate change mitigation and adaptation. Regardless of her exact plans, Sonja believes her future will be bright.

“I think this field is going to be lucky to have her,” Sonja says. “I feel fortunate to know she is going to be a colleague for many years down the road.”